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信息化时代下的高中英语词汇教学模式探究(楼立青)

来源: 发布时间:2018-12-07 09:32 浏览次数: 【字体:

信息化时代下的高中英语词汇教学模式探究


在教育信息化成为必然趋势的当今,信息技术与英语学科的有效结合有利于创设良好的教学情境,激发学生学习兴趣。以数字化、网络化、多媒体化为代表的现代信息技术引入英语教学领域,特别是词汇教学后,不仅带来了词汇教学技术上的革新,也促进了词汇教学结构模式的改变。《英语课程标准》(2003)给广大英语教师的教学建议中明确提出:教师要充分利用现代教育技术,开发英语教学资源,拓宽学生学习和运用英语渠道,改进学生学习方式,提高教学效果。由于词汇教学历来是英语教学的难题,它的重要性又不言而喻。笔者试图结合课堂教学和课题研究实践,探讨信息化时代下的高中英语词汇教学模式。

 

   一、运用词典软件,培养词汇拓展意识

   英语中一词多义现象很常见,词汇的具体意义需由不同的上下文而定,仅仅掌握课文中的一种用法对于词汇学习是远远不够的,这时,需要学生查词典加以补充学习,随着科技的进步和时代的发展,在传统纸质词典的基础上,电子词典以体积小,方便携带;单词存储量多,可以同步更新;英语学习内容多,搜索便捷、直观、省时等优势越来越受到师生欢迎。指导学生合理使用电子词典,提高词汇学习的效率是词汇学习的第一步。如:对于词汇cover的学习,人教版必修5 Unit 4 Making the news cover the story表示采访、报道,实际上cover 还有很多用法。查百度词典,有“v.遮盖;掩蔽;涉及;洒上;n.覆盖物;避难所;掩护;封面义及相关例句。海词提供n.封面;盖子;套子;表面v.覆盖;涉及;包含;掩护;给保险义及详尽释义、英语释义、行业释义和双解释义等。爱词霸提供“(名词) 书皮,封面 ;(云)量 ;掩蔽物,藏身处 ;罩子,盖子,套子 ;保证金,保险 ;全套餐具 ;替身;(气胎的)外胎 ;毯子,床罩,被子 v.(动词) 盖,铺盖,覆盖,淹没 ;翻唱,转录”等多种意思及常见句型、常用搭配、词汇搭配、经典引文。有道词典提供 “vt. 包括;采访,报导;涉及;n. 封面,封皮;盖子;掩蔽物vi. 覆盖;代替n. (Cover)人名;()科弗;()科韦尔”之义及网络释义、专业释义、英英释义等。通过比较和选择,我们最终确定以下用法作为学习重点并提供相关例句:

 1.She was sent to cover the event.   ( 报道,采访)

 2.The road was covered with snow.   ( 覆盖)                                    

 3.She laughed to cover her worry.     ( 遮掩)

 4.The red army covered about 30 miles a day. (走完多少里路)

 5.Is the money enough to cover the cost of a new shirt?((钱)够付)

 6.The city covers ten square miles.  ( 占有多少面积 )

 7.So far this month I have covered ten lessons.  (看了多少页书 )

   在词汇教学中,笔者有意识地培养学生合理使用电子词典的能力,不仅要求学生在课前能利用电子词典查找和比较相关词汇的用法,也体现在课堂教学中。例如,我们把灵格斯词霸电脑软件引入课堂,在灵格斯词霸中安装了多部权威英语学习词典,课堂上通过多媒体投影,教师可以快捷地为学生提供不同词典的释义和丰富的例句,大大提高了词汇教学的效果。教师经常在课堂上使用英语学习词典为学生课后独立使用英语学习词典做了很好的示范,学生也从中学到了如何有效使用英语学习词典的方法,培养了词汇拓展意识。

   二、 基于网络平台,丰富词汇学习方式

   基于网络的学生自主学习,是笔者所在学校正在积极推进的一种学习方式。针对英语学科的特点及学生的实际情况,我们采用了半开放式自主学习,即学生带着明确的任务,在教师设定的平台上学习研讨、提交作业、获取评价,发展学科能力。比如:在词汇预习阶段,教师在课前明确任务:对于单元核心词汇,不仅要求寻找课文例句,还要求能使用电子词典,寻找该词在词典中的相关用法。对于其他词汇,鼓励学生使用百度等网络手段,从China Daily,21st Century, Shanghai Students’Post, Google 等查找最新信息,补充相关背景知识,学生在课前五分钟用Free talk 等形式加以呈现和交流。如:abandon一词是浙江省高考考纲中的核心词汇,在人教版选修7 Unit 3 Under the sea中的例句是这样的:From Jame’s face, I could see he was terrified of being abandoned by us.此处相当于desert(遗弃, 抛弃)。学生通过网络,还能找出以下相关用法:

1.The officers and crew prepared to abandon ship in an orderly fashion. desert丢弃)(from http://dj.iciba.com)

2.Those who abandon themselves to despair can not succeed.(be addicted to放纵,沉溺于)( from http://dict.cn)

3...self-isolation, and we do not need to go to extremes in our efforts to overcome the remaining elements of “cultural insulation” and abandon our own cultural roots. There is no universal mode of civilization, given that any civilization always bears a historical...give up 放弃( Confidence in our own culture, Feb4th,2015 China daily).

4.public figures a pass for being flawed but that we shouldn’t abandon our own moral compasses and look... the show aired, I had people emailing to tell me that I was either (1) a traitor for publicly attacking...(throw away,摒弃) (from Be your own inspiration to improve, 21st century,Jan 6th,2015) 

开发和利用网络资源,丰富教学内容和形式,既能帮助老师提高课堂教学效果,也能拓展学生学习渠道。为了达到词汇教学的最优化,也为了更全面地寻找词汇的不同语境,我们把所需上网获取材料下载、打印出来散发给学生,供学生阅读。也将好的网站如中学英语合作网,英语周报网等内容丰富,适合学生搜集与课内有关的英语知识和高考试题及音频视频文件推荐给学生,让学生自己浏览,还推荐学生尝试阅读一些语言原汁原味的国外网站,把原本枯燥的词汇教学融入在鲜明的生活中。由于网络信息的时代性强,学生对词汇学习的兴趣大大增强。经过一段时间的教师有意识的引导,学生都乐于接受这种学习方式,并愿意在今后的学习中自学使用网络手段,如:Transport(2014年浙江省普通高考考试说明)一词是浙江省高考词汇,是高中学生必须掌握的核心词汇,该词除了作为动词名词等的用法之外,还要掌握它的构词法Transportation学生通过网络自主查询,找到以下信息:The Ministry of Transportation said it planned to fulfill the integration of the card in large and medium-sized cities till 2016. A trial operation is expected to run in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei.(译文:交通部称计划在2016年前实现大中城市交通一卡通一卡通将在北京、天津和河北试运行。)

一卡通就是integration of transportation card,也就是使用统一的public transport card(公交卡),这是Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei transportation integration project(京津冀交通一体化规划方案)的一部分。这种通过网络的自主学习,打破了一贯来老师讲学生记的传统模式,使词汇教学轻松有趣又富有时代气息,给学生留下更深的印象。

   三、开发微课资源,突破词汇教学难点

  “微课”是指以视频为主要载体记录教师在课堂教育教学过程中围绕某个知识点或教学环节而开展的精彩教与学活动全过程。“微课”的核心组成内容是课堂教学视频。对于词汇教学中比较容易混淆的词语辨析等难点,结合目前英语测试题型中关于词语辨析题的主要命题思路,设置真实的或者接近真实的语境,事先录制好微课,课堂中只要播放视频,几分钟下来,学生就能轻松掌握这一辨析难点。如:高考高频词辨析cause/reason,微课设计如下:

Step 1: Show some parts of news reports that students are familiar with:

1. China Minsheng Banking Corp said on Saturday that its president Mao Xiaofeng had resigned for personal reasons, hours after several Chinese media outlets reported he was being investigated by China's anti-corruption watchdog.

2. The cause of AirAsia's first fatal crash, which occurred around 40 minutes into the flight, was still unknown.

The cause of the accident is still under investigation.

3. Show a news report about Beijing bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics

       Wang Hui said there were three reasons why Beijing was bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics. "First, people want to have winter fun; second, Beijing and Zhangjiakou are capable of hosting the Games; and third, Beijing had a very recent Olympic success with the 2008 Games."

Step2: Sum up the usage of the two words in terms of the meanings: reason&cause

reason着重指解释或说明某事发生的理由或原因;cause着重指产生或造成某事发生的起因,往往指造成不好的影响。如:
The reason for which he was late was that his alarm clock did
n’t go off this morning.
The cause of the car accident was his carelessness.

Step 3: Sum up the usage of the two words in terms of the collocation

the reason for sth./the reason why(=for which)

eg. The reason for his being late was that the alarm clock didn’t go off and he slept in.

=The reason why/for which he was late was that the alarm clock didn’t go off and he slept in.

for this reason

eg. This morning, his alarm clock didn’t go off. For this reason, he slept in and was late for school.

the cause of sth.

eg. Drunk driving is often the major cause of traffic accidents.

cause and effect

eg. Can you say something about the cause and effect of global warming?

Step 4: More consolidation exercises for students’ reference:

 1.One of the common ______ of traffic accidents is _____ people don’t obey traffic rules.

       A. reason, why       B. cause, when   C. reasons, because   D causes, that

  2.According to the recent research, heavy coffee drinking and heart attack is not necessarily _____ and effect.    A. reason        B. impact       C. fact     D. cause

 3. A cigarette end can be the ________ of a big forest fire, so you are strongly advised not to smoke here.       A. reason        B. impact       C. fact     D. cause

 4. No one so far  can tell the_______ of the earthquake clearly, neither can they predict it accurately.        A. reason        B. impact       C. fact     D. cause

(keys: D D D D)

Step 5: Show more usage of these two words used as other part of speech and meaning:

1. cause n. 事业

eg. The Nobel Prizes would be awarded to people who made great contributions to the causes of peace, literature and the sciences.

2. cause sth. 引起, 导致

eg.Robots can make our lives easier but they may also cause new problems.

3. cause sb./sth. to do

eg.You had promised to take me to dinner tonight. What caused you to change your mind?

4.reason with sb.与某人理论;规劝某人;(用道理)劝说

eg.Reasoning with him is a waste of time. He is stubborn and ignorant. Just save your breath.

    将这些内容做成PPT后配之以教师的讲解,学生们在遇到诸如此类的辨析题的时候,应该能很好地解决和掌握,如果还是遇到疑问,学生可以再次复习这节微课,加深理解。而这样的微课,单独成课,教师还可以做成一个微课系列,名词辨析若干,动词辨析若干,动词词组辨析若干等等。这样学生最后的复习就拥有了一个完整的体系。

   四、借助远程教学,分享词汇学习经验

远程教育作为一种崭新的学习方法,具有学生学习时间灵活易控等多种优越性。远程教育的实质是利用电脑这个崭新的工具学习,极大的提高了学习的效率。考虑到我们学校有较为先进的电化教学设备和大多数城市学生家庭的现代化教学条件,我们借助与浙江万朋(wp)网络技术有限公司与学校合作的机会,积极组织学生开展英语词汇研究性学习,具体做法如下:在教师的调控下,学生根据自己的兴趣爱好分工合作,适时选择学习时间,在平台上参与讨论、调查、测验、投票等多种活动。如为了进一步强化和巩固词汇教学的成果,我们开展了以词汇教学为主题的每周一次的“空中课堂”,师生通过QQ、博客、微信、电子邮件、网上聊天室等交流工具,及时反馈学习效果成本低廉、方式便捷的远程交流,已日渐受到师生欢迎。师生之间、生生之间轻松地跨越时空走到一起,共同分享学习经验和体会,共同探讨或解决学习上遇到的困难和问题,从而培养他们之间相互协作的精神,并增进彼此的了解和友谊。

五、结语

 网络信息化为师生创设了良好的教学环境,为英语词汇教学提供了广泛的素材,培养了学生自主学习、合作学习和探究性学习的精神,借助现代信息技术的优势,使高中英语词汇教学在开放、综合和互动中得以实现

 

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